Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement
Ethical Principles for Editors

Independence and neutrality: Editorial decisions are independent and not susceptible to outside influences such as political, economic or personal pressures. The Editorial Board avoids any bias and treats each paper with respect, regardless of authors or affiliate institutions.

Maintaining confidentiality: Editors and all those involved in the editorial process should maintain confidentiality regarding the content and data related to submitted papers, not disclosing them before official publication.

Liability for errors: When errors or shortcomings are discovered in published work, editors should act to correct this information and provide clarification to readers.

Proper management of conflicts of interest:
a. Editors should ensure that any conflicts of interest related to the editorial process, such as personal, financial or institutional, are properly disclosed and managed.
b. If there is a conflict of interest related to an author's work, it should also be appropriately disclosed in the publication.

Detection and prevention of fraud:
The editors shall act in accordance with the principles of scientific integrity by taking measures to detect and prevent any abuse such as self-plagiarism, duplicate publication and falsehood, etc.
The editors shall take appropriate steps in case of suspected ethical violations in an article, such as scientific fraud, data manipulation, plagiarism and other fraudulent practices .etc.

Ethical principles for Reviewers:

Independence and objectivity: Reviewers should be independent and evaluate the work with an objective approach, neither favoring nor discriminating against the authors.

Conflict of Interest: Reviewers should inform the editors of potential conflicts of interest if they identify them during the review.

Transparency and Accountability: Reviewers should present their comments and conclusions in a clear, fair and understandable manner to authors and editors, and make a review decision based on the substantive quality of the work, not on any personal biases.

Ethical Principles for Authors:

Originality and authorship disclosure: Authors should present only their original work, avoiding plagiarism and self-plagiarism. All individuals who contributed significantly to the work should be listed as co-authors, and the work of others should be properly cited. Authors should not submit the same paper for review and publication in more than one journal. Papers that rely on previous publications should be properly marked and cited.

Disclosure of conflicts of interest: Authors should disclose any potential or actual conflicts of interest that may affect the interpretation of results or the interpretation of the paper.

Acknowledgments: All sources of funding and contributions from other individuals or institutions should be properly acknowledged in the acknowledgments.

Error detection: Authors should report errors or inaccuracies in their work to the editors and cooperate in the process of correcting or retracting the work, if necessary.

In situations involving ethical transgressions, editors apply the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines on best practices for journal editors.