Shift in Balance: UK Perspective on Democratic Deficit Addressed by Participatory Turn and Gamification
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University of Leicester Institute for Inclusivity in Higher Education (ULIIHE)., University of Leicester, United Kingdom
Submission date: 2022-10-10
Acceptance date: 2022-11-18
Publication date: 2022-12-30
Corresponding author
Benjamin Duke   

University of Leicester Institute for Inclusivity in Higher Education (ULIIHE), University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH, United Kingdom
Studia Humanistyczne AGH 2022;21(4):61-75
This paper provides a conceptual theoretical review of participatory turn and gamification from a United Kingdom (UK) perspective. Democratic deficit is a perennial problem in urban-planning systems due to the number of causal factors. Participatory practices and gamification are two instruments that can be used to help alleviate low democratic responsiveness. The paper articulates how there are different ways of knowing and assessing community priorities and values – people need increased consciousness and self-confidence to participate. The UK case studies that are discussed have made a significant contribution by providing useful insights regarding the benefits and limitations of participatory practices and gamification. For example, ‘Participology’ and ‘Geogopoly’ have clear participatory gamification benefits even though they are unable to include decision-maker accountability or recreate real-life power relationships. This paper posits that the use of participatory practices and/or gamification as policy levers (specifically in UK urban-planning processes) will herald a shift in the balance of power.
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